Yes, they would receive the stimulus payment for you if you're under 17. If someone else already claimed you, you cannot file without checking the box saying you're being claimed by someone else. If you don't check that, your return will be rejected by the IRS.
You would not get into trouble for filing your own tax return, whether or not you were claimed on another tax return. However, if you have been claimed or could have been claimed as a dependent on another tax return, you are not eligible for a stimulus payment.
As stated by user Stinkerbellkity, if you have been claimed as a dependent or you could be claimed as a dependent, you must check a box on your return indicating that. When that box is checked, you will not be eligible for a stimulus payment.
To learn more: IRS - Economic Impact Payment
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