No, if you are performing the work in Texas and you live in Texas, then you are not liable for California taxes. The only situation in that scenario where you would need to file is if CA taxes were withheld from your check while you were working in Texas.
Here are some more descriptive explanations of your scenario:
Note, this entire analysis assumes the nonresident is an employee of a California firm. If the nonresident is an independent contractor, different rules applies. Specifically, even if the independent contractor never set foot in California, if he is performing services for a California customer, he is likely “doing business in California,” which falls under a totally different set of stringent, complex rules, and which usually result in a tax liability of some sort. This problem also applies to out-of-state entities that perform services to California customers. See “Internet-Based Companies and ‘Doing Business’ in California: Be Careful What Your Website Says About You,” for an overview of those rules.