As self employed you will owe 15.3% self employment tax as well as tax at your marginal tax rate on that income. You can either make estimated tax payments or increase your W-2 withholding to account for the increased income.
I've been self-employed for just over 15 years now. My rule of thumb from day one has been this.
If you send the IRS 20% of your *GROSS* business income each quarter, then come tax filing time you'll be fine. In the 15 years I've done it this way I have only owed the IRS at tax file time, two times. Both times what I owed was less than $500. Because my estimated payments got my total tax paid to within 10% of my tax liability, I've never paid any underpayment penalties either.
Note that if your state also taxes personal income, then I recommend you pay your state a percentage of your gross business income of whatever the maximum tax rate is. Then come tax filing time you're practically guaranteed a refund from the state. At this point in time the highest state tax rate I'm aware of is 8.75%
Here is some general info on self employment income.
To report your self employment income you will fill out schedule C in your personal 1040 tax return and pay SE self employment Tax. Here's a Schedule C https://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/f1040sc.pdf
You can enter Self Employment Income into Online Deluxe or Premier but if you have any expenses you will have to upgrade to the Self Employed version. How to enter self employment income
For the future, you should use a program like Quicken or QuickBooks to track your income and expenses. There is a QuickBooks Self Employment bundle you can check out which includes one Turbo Tax Online Self Employed return....
You will need to keep good records. You may get a 1099NEC at the end of the year if someone pays you more than $600 but you need to report all your income no matter how small and if you don't get the 1099NEC.
You use your own records. You are considered self employed and have to fill out a schedule C for business income. You use your own name, address and ssn or business name and EIN if you have one. You should say you use the Cash Accounting Method and all income is At Risk.
After it asks if you received any 1099Misc or 1099NEC it will ask if you had any income not reported on a 1099Misc. You should be keeping your own records. Just go through the interview and answer the questions. Then you will enter your expenses.
Self Employment tax (Scheduled SE) is automatically generated if a person has $400 or more of net profit from self-employment. You pay 15.3% SE tax on 92.35% of your Net Profit greater than $400. The 15.3% self employed SE Tax is to pay both the employer part and employee part of Social Security and Medicare. So you get social security credit for it when you retire.
The SE tax is already included in your tax due or reduced your refund. It is on the 1040 Schedule 2 line 4 which goes to 1040 line 15. The SE tax is in addition to your regular income tax on the net profit. You do get to take off the 50% ER portion of the SE tax as an adjustment on 1040 Schedule 1 line 14 which flows to 1040 line 8a. Turbo Tax automatically calculates the SE Tax and Adjustment.
Here is some IRS reading material……
IRS information on Self Employment
Pulication 334, Tax Guide for Small Business
Publication 535 Business Expenses
You must make quarterly estimated tax payments for the current tax year if both of the following apply:
- 1. You expect to owe at least $1,000 in tax for the current tax year, after subtracting your withholding and credits.
- 2. You expect your withholding and credits to be less than the smaller of:
90% of the tax to be shown on your current year’s tax return, or
100% of the tax shown on your prior year’s tax return. (Your prior year tax return must cover all 12 months.)
To prepare estimates for next year you start with your current return, but be careful not to change anything. For Online versions, if you can't get back into your return, Click on Add a State to let you back into your retun.
You can just type W4 in the search box at the top of your return , click on Find. Then Click on Jump To and it will take you to the estimated tax payments section. Say no to changing your W-4 and the next screen will start the estimated taxes section.
Or Go to….
Federal Taxes or Personal (Desktop H&B)
Other Tax Situations
Other Tax Forms
Form W-4 and Estimated Taxes - Click the Start or Update button
Here are the blank Estimates and instructions…..