My wife and I are in the divorce process and we've been living separately for nearly 18 months. My son is 21 years old and attending college. In 2019, I paid more than half of his necessities and other expenses and his home is my marital home, which I live in and maintain. Given all of this, can I file as "head of Household"? If so, are there IRS forms (e.g. 8332) that my spouse needs to complete? Do I need have other documentation to submit with my tax return?
If I understand correctly you and your son live together in a home that you maintain and you and your wife have not lived together a oof the last months of 2019. If that is correct, you can file as head of household and claim him and all the other tax benefits related to that dependency. You need no documentation or permission from the other parent since you are the custodial parent.