Seek some legal advice from the attorney who helped you with the divorce. We cannot give legal advice here. Your attorney may have some ways to get copies of the return she filed if she put your name and SSN on the return. And the attorney may be able to get her SSN.
You say you have used TurboTax for past years. You can look in your TT account at past returns and find your spouse's Social Security number on the first page of any joint return you filed with her.
You can check to see if the IRS has a transcript of a tax return for 2021 with your SSN on it. Here are two ways to look:
Check your online IRS account.
W-2's come from your employers. You need to ask your employer(s) for copies of the W-2's that you say your ex-spouse has. Call, email, snail mail or drop in on a former employer if you need to, and make sure they know where to send your W-2's going forward.
Other ways to get W-2's:
You can get a wage and income transcript from the IRS: It will not show the actual W-2, 1099’s, etc, but will show the income information the IRS received. It will not, however, show your state information. It will only show the federal information.
Or you can pay the IRS $43 for an actual copy of your past tax return which will include copies of your W-2’s. This would give you a way to get your spouse's SSN, too.
You do not say when the divorce was final, so it is difficult to advise you. Your marital status for a tax return is determined as of December 31 of the tax year, so if you were still legally married at the end of 2021, then your filing choices were to file married filing separately or married filing jointly. You suspect she filed married filing separately, but do not seem to know that for sure.
There are strict rules to be followed when you file separate returns----and we do not know if she followed those rules. If you are in a community property state, then it is even more complex to file separate returns.
( Community property states: AZ, CA, ID, LA, NV, NM, TX, WA, WI )
If you were divorced before the end of 2022, then you can only file as Single for 2022---not married. But you only say you are "recently" divorced, so we do not know if you must still file married or single for 2022.
You do not mention if there are children. So we do not know if child-related credits are at stake. We also do not know which of you has the children, and which of you is the custodial parent---which could affect your filing status.
And we do not know if you received your stimulus checks for 2020 and/or 2021, which your ex-spouse may have received. If you did not receive the stimulus checks, they can be entered on returns for 2020 and/or 2021 to get the recovery rebate credit.
What was the date of your divorce?
If you were legally married as of 12/31/21, you would have to file married filing separately unless you have a dependent that qualifies you to file as head of household. If you don't have your W-2s, 1099s or other documents, your best recourse is to directly contact the payers to get copies. You can also get your wage and income transcripts from IRS which will show (in a shorthand format) what the IRS has on file for you.
You can also work with your attorney to get copies of important documents from your spouse's attorney.
If you absolutely can't get your spouse's SSN, you will need to use a fake SSN in Turbotax, then print your tax return, cover the fake SSN with white out, and attach a written statement explaining the circumstances and giving as many of your spouse's details as you can (maiden name, new married name, address, birthdate, etc.) File by mailing your return. For a 2021 return you need to buy Turbotax 2021 version as a download or CD to install on your own computer. You can't use Turbotax online because that is only for the current season (2022).
Assuming your divorce was final during 2022, you would file as single, unless you remarried, or you provide care in your home for a qualifying person for HOH. Since you didn't file for 2021, you can try entering zero (0) as your AGI for the e-file verification. If that doesn't work, you can print your 2022 return and file by mail.
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