If your credit records do not show that your tax due was paid, then something went wrong--either you entered the wrong account number or there was some other error. TurboTax does not pull the payment--TT only passes along the information that you enter to pay your tax due.
If your payment is late (and it is) you can expect a bill from the IRS for the late payment penalty and interest owed, calculated by the IRS based on when they receive your payment and how much you owed.
**Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to offer the most correct information possible. The poster disclaims any legal responsibility for the accuracy of the information that is contained in this post.**