With the Health insurance Penalty, I will owe the Federal Government. But I wasn't eligible for my works insurance until the end of the year because I attained fulltime halfway through the year.
Unfortunately, being not eligible for health insurance at work is not an exemption for the ACA penalty.
If you do not have health insurance in 2017, you have to pay the ACA unless you can claim an exemption.
You can verify if you qualify for an exemption by using this tool provided by the Marketplace:
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