Sorry to hear about your health issues. Medical bills that you paid out of pocket are itemized deductions. If you have enough medical expenses to meet the threshold and you have enough other itemized deductions to exceed your standard deduction then enter the medical expenses you paid in 2020.
The medical expense deduction has to meet a rather large threshold before it can affect your return. The amount of medical (including dental, vision, etc.) expenses that will count toward itemization is the amount that is OVER 7.5% of your adjusted gross income. You should only enter the amount that you paid in 2020—do not include any amounts that were covered by insurance or that are still outstanding. Of course, your medical expenses plus your other itemized deductions still have to exceed your standard deduction before you will see a difference in your tax due or refund.
To enter your medical expenses go to Federal>Deductions and Credits>Medical>Medical Expense
Many taxpayers are surprised because their itemized deductions are not having the same effect as they did on past tax returns. The new higher standard deduction and the elimination of certain deductions, as well as the cap on state and local taxes have had a major impact since the new tax laws went into effect beginning with 2018 returns.
Your itemized deductions have to be more than your standard deduction before you will see a change in your tax owed or tax refund. The deductions you enter do not necessarily count “dollar for dollar;” many of them are subject to meeting tough thresholds—medical expenses, for example, must meet a threshold that is pretty hard to reach. (Only the amount that is MORE than 7.5% of your AGI counts) The software program uses all the IRS rules that apply to the expenses you enter, and it tells you if you have enough to use your itemized deductions or if using the standard deduction is more advantageous for you. Under the new tax laws, some deductions have been capped—there is a $10,000 limit to the itemized deductions for state, local, property and sales taxes.
Your standard deduction lowers your taxable income. It is not a refund. You will see your standard or itemized deduction amount on line 12 of your 2020 Form 1040.
2020 Standard Deduction Amounts
Single $12,400 (+ $1650 65 or older)
Married Filing Separate $12,400 (+ $1300 if 65 or older)
Married Filing Jointly $24,800 (+ $1300 for each spouse 65 or older)
Head of Household $18,650 (+ $1650 for 65 or older)