No. You can only deduct 2017 contributions on a 2017 return. However, you can amend your previous years' returns to get the benefit of the retirement account contribution.
Please see the following FAQ for information on amending a return you already filed:
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payroll deductions are already accounted for on your tax return through your W-2,..
If you have been putting other money into an IRA, you should be reporting this also on your tax return.