If you are itemizing your deductions on your Federal Return you can deduct payments made for state income taxes during 2016. This would under the title 'Deductions and Credits' and then under 'Other income taxes'. In this list of deductions you will find one for 'State taxes paid in 2016' and you can use this to enter your payment information.
If you are not itemizing your federal deductions then you will not be able to deduct your state tax payments. Also they are not eligible as state income tax deductions as they are a credit for taxes paid to the state.