Yes, if you purchase furniture for your business, you may report this expenditure as an office expense as long as neither cost more than $500.
The IRS has a new "Safe Harbor Election" that allows you to expense any item that cost between $501 and $2499. If your furniture falls into this range, start under Assets/Depreciation in order to include this election on your return.
If you use your desk & chair at home for the convenience of your employer, you may be able to deduct this cost as a "Job-Related Expense." Find this under Deductions & Credits >> Employment Expenses.