Yes, through a third-party payment processor. However, there is a convenience fee, which is charged by the payment processor.
If you owe the IRS and you're e-filing, select the option Charge my credit card when asked how you want to pay your federal taxes in the File section.
The credit/debit card payment option is only available in TurboTax if you e-file your federal return. However, there is a workaround if you're paper-filing your return.
Tip: Instead of paying the convenience fee for debit card payment, consider direct debit, which is free.