It depends on which state tax return you filed. When you file your federal tax return and the injured spouse claim, the claim is for your federal return only. Unfortunately not all states allow you file an injured spouse claim. If your state allows it, then you would have needed to file a separate injured spouse claim for that state. It is possible that you can still file that claim with your state.
I dont know what state return you are filing, but if you open this FAQ and click on your state, it will open the state's website. Then you can type injured spouse, etc in the search box, to see what type of information you can find regarding whether they accept this claim. https://ttlc.intuit.com/replies/4801660