No, you cannot. The loan itself is not a deduction.
However, you can deduct medical expenses paid with the loan (you are considered to have paid the medical expenses since you are obligated to pay back the loan) in the year you paid them.
You can amend your tax return for prior year(s) if you never deducted your medical expenses as part of your itemized deductions. They may or may not increase your refund, though.
Here is information on how to amend and some information on medical expenses:
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