Residency requirements can vary from state to state. In your scenario, you may be considered a part-year resident of each state for 2017. But if you lived in Colorado and worked there for part of the year, you will need to file a part-year return in Colorado for the income that you received there. Plus, for your Wisconsin return, you can note that you were not there for the full year. You can also have the Colorado income and taxes paid removed from your Wisconsin income.
Also, please note that if you were a student in Colorado during your three months there, then you would not be considered a resident of Colorado (and would need to file as Non-Resident to get any Colorado withholding back.) A student who is away at school is always considered a resident of their home state for tax purposes.
Here are some examples of a resident, part-year resident and non-resident scenarios:
Here is some information regarding filing a part-year resident tax return in TurboTax:
And information on how taxes are calculated on part-year returns:
[Edited 1/29/17, 2:02 pm]