I received a 1099-MISC for an amount in box 2 (Royalties). This is for a music royalty payment earned while living and working in CA.
The payer (and I guess employer?) on the 1099-MISC form is in New York, but I am a resident of CA.
Does this income belong on the NY or CA state tax return?
It belongs on your CA tax return.
Residents of California are taxed on ALL income, including income from sources outside California.