If you are asking whether you can get a tax refund by only filing income shown on Form 1099-MISC from self-employment, then the answer is it depends.
As you know, there are not any income taxes or self-employment taxes taken out of 1099-MISC income, so those taxes may be due when you file your return. However, depending on the rest of your tax situation (filing status, claiming dependents, etc.), you may qualify for certain tax credits that will cover your income tax and self-employment tax, and possibly even put money in your pocket in the form of a refund.
The only way to know is to create and file your return.
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