No, you have to include 2016 amounts with a 2016 return. You will need to amend your 2016 tax return in order to include this interest deduction. You can follow the instructions in the article below to start the amendment process.
Note: Its possible, depending on your income level and other deductions/credits, that this particular deduction may not even add any additional tax benefit. So, you may want to at least start the amendment process now and add the 1098-E and see the impact because the opposite could also be true.