No, the federal and state agencies do not communicate with TurboTax about any changes in customer's tax returns.
Once your return is accepted, you can't change any of the payments details, but, you can cancel the electronic withdrawal payment and use another payment method.
You can call IRS e-file Payment Services anytime at 1-888-353-4537, 7 to 10 days after your return was accepted to cancel your payment.
You must cancel your payment 2 business days prior to the scheduled payment date.
Check out "Cancellations, Errors and Questions" from IRS link below "Pay Taxes by Electronic Funds Withdrawal"
To setup new payments directly through IRS and state websites:
Visit www.irs.gov/Payments and choose a payment option instead of paying through TurboTax.
Guidelines vary per state. Check out your state's link below for more information on changing a direct debit payment date: